Vitamin K2 MK-4

El Asmar MS, Naoum JJ, Arbid EJ. Vitamin K Dependent
Proteins and the Role of Vitamin K2 in the Modulation
of Vascular Calcification: A Review.  Oman Med J 2014
May 29;(3):172-177.  
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Shiraki M, Shiraki Y, Aoki C, Miura M. Vitamin K2
(Menatetrenone) Effectively Prevents Fractures and
Sustains Lumbar Bone Density in Osteoporosis.
J Bone Miner Res. (2000) 15:515-521. 
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Miki T, Nakatsuka K, Naka H, Kitatani K, Saito S, Masaki H,
Tomiyoshi Y, Morii H, Nishizawa Y. Vitamin K2 (menaquinone-4)
Reduces Serum Undercarboxylated Osteocalcin Level as Early
as 2 Weeks in Elderly Women with Established Osteoporosis.
J Bone Miner Metab (2003) 21:161-165.  
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Okamoto H, Shidara K, Hoshi D, Kamatani N. Anti-Arthritis
Effects of Vitamin K2 (menaquinone-4) – A New Potential
Therapeutic Strategy for Rheumatoid Arthritis.
FEBS J 274 (2007) 4588-4594.  
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Ferland G. Vitamin K and the Nervous System: An Overview
of its Actions. American Society for Nutrition. Adv. Nutr. 3:
204–212, 2012; doi:10.3945/an.111.001784.

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Viegas CSB., Costa RM, Santos L, Videira PA, Silva Z, Araujo N,
Macedo AL, Matos AP, Vermeer C, Simes DC. Gla-Rich
Protein Function as an Anti-Inflammatory Agent in
Monocytes/Macrophages: Implications for Calcification-
Related Chronic Inflammatory Diseases. Published: May 18,
2017. 
https://dio.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0177829. 
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Viegas CSB, Cavaco S. Neves PL, Ferreira A, Joao A, Williamson
MK, et al. Gla-Rich Protein (GRP) is a Novel Vitamin K
Dependent Protein Present in Serum and Accumulated
at Sites of Pathological Calcifications. Am J Pathol. 2009;
175:2288-2298.pmid:19893032.  

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Viegas CSB, Herfs M, Rafael MS, Enriquez JL, Teixeira A, Luis I, et al.
Gla-Rich Protein is a Potential New Vitamin K Target
in Cancer: Evidences for a Direct GRP-Mineral Interaction.
Biomed Res Int. 2014.  
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Viegas CSB, Rafael M, Enriquez JL, Teixeira A, Vitorino R, Luis M, et al.
Gla-Rich Protein (GRP) Acts as a Calcification Inhibitor in the
Human Cardiovascular System. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol.
2015;35:399-408.pmid:25538207.  

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Viegas CS and Simes DC. New Perspectives for the Nutritional
Value of Vitamin K in Human Health. J Nutr Disorders Ther.
2016;6:3.  
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Price, WA. Nutrition and Physical Degeneration.
La Mesa, CA: Price-Pottenger Nutrition Foundation, 1939.

Davidson RT et al. Conversion of dietary phylloquinone
to tissue menaquinone-4 in rats is not dependent on gut
bacteria. J Nutr. 1998 Feb;128(2):220-3.  LEARN MORE

 

Ronden J et al. Intestinal flora is not an intermediate in the
phylloquinone- menaquinone-4 conversion in the rat.
Biochimca et Biophysica Acta (BBA) – General Subjects.
Volume 1379. issue 1, 8 January 1998, p. 69-75.
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Gijsbers BL et al. Effect of food composition
on vitamin K absorption in human volunteers.
Br J Nutr. 1996 Aug;76(2):223-9. LEARN MORE

 

Shanahan C. Deep Nutrition: Why your genes need
traditional food. Big Box Books, 2009, p. 153, 233.

Hiraike H et al. Distribution of K vitamins (phylloquinone
and menaquinones) in human placenta and maternal
and umbilical cord plasma. Am J Obstet Gyecol. 1988
Mar;158(3 Pt 1):5649.  LEARN MORE

 

Schwalfenberg G.K. Vitamins K1 and K2: Emerging Group
of Vitamins Required for Human Health. J Nutr Metab.
2017;2017:6254836. doi: 10.1155/2017/6254836.  
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Rheuame-Bleue K. Vitamin K2 and the Calcium Paradox:
how a little known vitamin can save your life. HarperCollins
Publishers, Ltd
, 2012

Hitomi M et al. Antitumor effects of vitamins
K1, K2 and K3 on hepatocellular carcinoma in vitro
and in vivo. Int J Oncol. 2005 Mar;26(3):713-20.
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Fan Xv et al. Research progress on the anticancer
effects of vitamin K2. Oncol Lett. 2018 Jun; 15(6): 8926–8934.
Published online 2018 Apr 16. doi: 10.3892/ol.2018.8502.   
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Okamoto H. Vitamin K and rheumatoid arthritis.
IUBMB Life. 2008 Jun;60(6):355-61. doi: 10.1002/iub.41.  
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Morishita et al. Osteoclast inhibitory effects of
vitamin K2 alone or in combination with etidronate
or risedronate in patients with rheumatoid arthritis:
2-year results. J Rheumatol, 2008 Mar;35(3):407-13
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Holden et al. Vitamins K and D in chronic kidney
disease. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2010 Apr; 5(4): 590–597.
doi: 10.2215/CJN.06420909   
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van Ballegooijen AJ, Beulens JW. The Role of
Vitamin K Status in Cardiovascular Health: Evidence
from Observational and Clinical Studies. Curr Nutr Rep.
2017;6(3):197-205. doi: 10.1007/s13668-017-0208-8.  
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McCabe KM et al. Dietary vitamin K and therapeutic
warfarin alter the susceptibility to vascular calcification
in experimental chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int. 2013
May;83(5):835-44. doi: 10.1038/ki.2012.477.
LEARN MORE

 

Bruno EJ. The Prevalence of Vitamin K
Deficiency/Insufficiency, and Recommendations
or Increased Intake. J Hum Nutr Food Sci. 2016;4(1):1077.
LEARN MORE

 

Cranenberg et al. Vitamin K: the coagulation
vitamin that become omnipotent. Thromb
Haemost. 2007, 98(1):120-125   LEARN MORE

 

VitaK Laboratories. Form 11.1: Result form Vitamin K
measurements (Weston A. Price Foundation, April 2015)
minKMeasurements120315
-WestonPriceFoundation-foodsamples.   
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VitaK Laboratories. Form 11.1: Result from Vitamin K
measurements (Weston A. Price Foundation, June 2015)
minKMeasurements120315-WestonPriceFoundation-
foodsamples1   LEARN MORE

 

VitaK Laboratories. Form 11.1: Result from Vitamin K
measurements (Weston A. Price Foundation, Oct-November
2015) minKMeasurements021015-WestonPriceFoundation-
foodsamples   LEARN MORE

 

Fang-Fei Wei. Inactive matrix Gla protein is a novel
circulating biomarker predicting retinal arteriolar
narrowing in humans. Scientific Reports, volume 8,
Article number: 15088 (2018) Published: 10 October 2018  
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Thijssen HHW, Drittij-Reijnders MJ, Department of
Pharmacology, Cardiovascular Research Institute.
Vitamin K status in human tissues: tissue-specific
accumulation of phylloquinone and menaquinone-4.
British Journal of Nutrition (1996), 75, 121-127 121
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Ferland, G. The discovery of vitamin K and its clinical
applications. Ann. Nutr. Metab. 61(3), 213-218 (2012).  
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Li J et al. Novel role of vitamin K in preventing oxidative
injury to developing oligodendrocytes and neurons.
J Neurosci 2003; 23:5816-26 PMID: 12843286
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Lev M et al. Effect of vitamin K depletion and restoration on
sphingolipid metabolism in Bacteroides melaninogenicus.
J Lipid Res. 1972 May;13(3):364-70.
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Lev M et al. Vitamin K stimulation of sphingolipid synthesis.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1971;45(2):358-62
https://doi.org/10.1016/0006-291X(71)90826-6
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Sakaue M et al. Vitamin K has the potential to protect
neurons from methylmercury-induced cell death in
vitro. J. Neurosci Res 2011 Jul1;89(7):1052-8
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Vitamin K-Dependent Proteins: Biological Processes
European Molecular Biological Laboratory – European
Bioinformatics Institute (EMBL-EBI), 2019
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Margueritta S. El Asmar et al. Vitamin K Dependent
Proteins and the Role of Vitamin K2 in the Modulation
of Vascular Calcification: A Review. Oman Med J. 2014
May; 29(3): 172–177. doi: 10.5001/omj.2014.44   
LEARN MORE

 

Binder MD et al. Gas6 increases myelination by
oligodendrocytes and its deficiency delays recovery
following cuprizone-induced demyelination. PLoS One.
2011 Mar 10:6(3):e17727. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0017727
LEARN MORE

 

Bellan M et al. The Gas6/TAM System and Multiple Sclerosis.
Intl J Mol Sci. 2016 Oct 28:17(11) .pii: E1807. doi: 10.3390/
ijms17111807   LEARN MORE

 

Binder MD et al. Gas6 deficiency increases oligodendrocyte
loss and microglial activation in response to cuprizone-induced
demyelination. J Neurosci. 2008 May 14;28(20):5195-206.
doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1180-08.2008.
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Ray AK et al. Loss of Gas6 and Axl signaling results in extensive
axonal damage, motor deficits, prolonged neuro-inflammation,
and less remeylination following cuprizone exposure. Glia. 2017
Dec:65(12):2051-2069. doi: 10.1002/glia.23214.
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Ferland G. Vitamin K, an emerging nutrient in brain
function. Biofactors. 2012 Mar-Apr;38(2):151-7.
doi: 10.1002/biof.1004.
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Carrie I, et al. Menaquinone-4 Concentration is
Correlated with Sphingolipid Concentrations in
Rat Brain. J Nutr. 2004 Jan;134(1):167-72.
doi: 10.1093/jn/134.1.167
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Summary : Vitamin K-dependent Carboxylation/gamma-
carboxyglutamic (GLA) domain. European Molecular Biological
Laboratory – European Bioinformatics Institute (EMBL-EBI), 2019.
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Buxbaum J et al. Transthyretin: the servant of many
masters. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2009 Oct; 66(19): 3095–3101.
doi: 10.1007/s00018-009-0109-0
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Mainardi E et al. Thyroid-related autoantibodies and
celiac disease: a role for a gluten-free diet?
J Clin Gastroenterol. 2002 Sep;35(3):245-8.   
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Suttie JW. Synthesis of vitamin K dependent proteins.
FASEB J. 1993 Mar;7(5):445-52 PMIS 8462786  
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Harshman S et al. The Role of Vitamin K in Chronic
Aging Diseases: Inflammation, Cardiovascular
Disease, and Osteoarthritis. Curr Nutr Rep. 2016
Jun;5(2):90-98. doi: 10.1007/s13668-016-0162-x   
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Moriya M et al. Vitamin K2 ameliorates experimental
autoimmune encephalomyelitis in Lewis rats.
J Neuroimmunol. 2005 Dec 30;170(1-2):11-20.   
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Li J et al. Vitamin K prevents oxidative cell death
by inhibiting activation of 12-lipoxygenase in
developing oligodendrocytes. J Neurosci Res. 2009
Jul;87(9):1997-2005. doi: 10.1002/jnr.22029.   
LEARN MORE

 

Sakaue M et al. Vitamin K has the potential to protect
neurons from methylmercury-induced cell death in vitro.
J Neurosci Res. 2011 Jul;89(7):1052-8. doi: 10.1002/jnr.22630.   
LEARN MORE

 

Hadipour E. Vitamin K2 protects PC12 cells against
Aß (1-42) and H2O2 induced apoptosis via p38 MAP
kinase pathway. Nutr Neurosci. 2018 Jul 30:1-10.
doi: 10.1080/1028415X.2018
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Noda S et al. Menaquinone-4 (vitamin K2) up-regulates
expression of human intestinal alkaline phosphatase in
Caco-2 cells. Nutr Res. 2016 Nov;36(11):1269-1276.
doi: 10.1016/j.nutres.2016.10.001. Epub 2016 Oct 14.   
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Houghton CA et al. Sulforaphane and Other Nutrigenomic
Nrf2 Activators: Can the Clinician’s Expectation Be Matched
by the Reality? Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2016; 2016: 7857186.
doi: 10.1155/2016/7857186   LEARN MORE

 

Sandberg M et al. NRF2-regulation in brain health and
disease: implication of cerebral inflammation.
Neuropharmacology. 2014 Apr; 0: 298–306.
doi:10.1016/j.neuropharm.2013.11.004
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Hadipour E. Vitamin K2 protects PC12 cells against
Aβ (1-42) and H2O2-induced apoptosis via p38 MAP
kinase pathway. Nutr Neurosci. 2018 Jul 30:1-10.
doi:10.1080/1028415X.2018.1504428.   
LEARN MORE

 

Yuan J et al. Effects of dietary vitamin K levels on growth
performance, enzyme activities and antioxidant status in the
hepatopancreas and intestine of juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus
carpio var. Jian). First published: 19 December 2014,
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Vos M.Vitamin K2 is a mitochondrial electron carrier
that rescues pink1 deficiency. Science. 2012 Jun 8;
336(6086):1306-10. doi:10.1126/science.1218632.   
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Bhalerao S et al. Vitamin K2 takes Charge. Science
Vol 336. 2012 Jun 09; 336(6086): 1241-1242.
DOI: 10.1126/science.1223812
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Schwalfenberg G.K. Vitamins K1 and K2: Emerging
Group of Vitamins Required for Human Health.
J Nutr Metab. 2017;2017:6254836.
doi: 10.1155/2017/6254836.   LEARN MORE

 

Zhou C et al. The steroid and xenobiotic receptor (SXR),
beyond xenobiotic metabolism. Nucl Recept Signal.
2009;7:e001. doi:10.1621/nrs.07001.   LEARN MORE

 

Binder MD et al. Gas6 increases myelination by oligodendrocytes
and its deficiency delays recovery following cuprizone-induced
demyelination. PLoS One. 2011 Mar 10;6(3):e17727.
doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0017727.   LEARN MORE

 

Dulamea AO. Role of Oligodendrocyte Dysfunction
in Demyelination, Remyelination and Neurodegeneration
in Multiple Sclerosis. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2017;958:91-127.
doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-47861-6_7.   LEARN MORE

 

Lasemi R et al. Vitamin K2 in multiple sclerosis patients.
Wien Klin Wochenschr. 2018 May;130(9-10):307-313.
doi: 10.1007/s00508-018-1328-x.   LEARN MORE